Peasant Movements

(Important Peasant Movements of Indian Modern History)

During the rule of Europeans, many uprising were witnessed by our country. Many revenue and increased rents were imposed on Indians. Due to these circumstances revolts and uprising came in existence time to time against their rule by our farmers, cultivators and poor communities led by our leaders. Some Peasant movements are given in table blow-

Pagal Panthis’s Movement1825-1835The movement was of Hajongs and Garo tribes under the leadership of Karam Shah and Tipu Shah in Bengal, this movement was against raise in rents.
Moplah Uprisings1836-1854In Malabar region, It was against the risen  revenue and reduced size of field.
Indigo Revolt1859-1860Under leadership of Degambar and Bishnu Biswas, Indigo cultivators against the terms imposed by British. For this situation the indigo commission set up in 1860.
Deccan Peasant’s Uprising1857By Maratha peasant of Kardeh vill. and Poona in Maharashtra, it was against corrupt Gujarati and Marwari moneylenders. For this situation Agriculturists’ Relief Act 1879 was passed.
Pabna Agrarian Uprising1873Led by Shah Chandra Roy, Khoodi Mollah, Shambhu Pal, in pabna district East Bengal (now in Bangladesh). It was against Zamindaris policies for preventing Occupants and occupancy rights. For this, the Bengal Tenancy Act of 1885 was passes.
Punjab Peasants RevoltEnd of 19th centuryThis revolt was Against losing their land. The Punjab Land Alienation Act 1900 was passed.
Champaran Satyagraha1917By peasant of Champaran in Bihar. It was against ‘Tinkathia system’ imposed by Europeans for cultivating indigo. The tinkathia system was abolished by “The Champaran Agrarian Act”.
Kheda Satyagraha1918By peasants of kheda and led by M.K. Gandhi.  
Eka movement1921-22By the caste Ahir and Pasi against hike in rent.
Bardoli Satyagraha1928In Surat, Gujarat supported by Mehta broters and sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. This was against upper cast for untouchability and 22 percent increased revenue. After the movement the revenue brought down to 6.03 percent.
Tebhaga Movement1946-47This movement was against Moneylenders and Zamindars by the peasant (share croppers) of Bengal. The Bargardari Bill was passed for this.

Metals and Non Metals

Metals and Non Metals

Metals– Metals occur in nature in free state as well as in combined state, as very few metals occurs in free state like – Gold, Silver and Platinum.

  • Metals found in combined states in a mineral i.e. Ore

Properties of Metals

Physical properties

  • Mostly metals found in solid states. Exception-Mercury (the metal is liquid at room temperature. Alkalis metals like lithium, sodium, potassium are so soft and can be cut with a knife.)
  • consisting High melting point and high boiling point. (Gallium and Caesium Having extermly low Melting point as they can melt even on palm)
  • They are ductile. (Ductile- Ability of metals to be drawn in to thin wires.) For ex- Gold is most ductile metal.
  • malleable (they can be beaten in to thin sheets.)- Gold and silver are most malleable metal.
  • Quite lustrous property (metallic lustre)
  • Good conductor of heat and electricity. Silver and copper are best conductor of heat. Lead and mercury are poor conductor of heat.

Chemical properties

  • These are electropositive and form positive ions by losing electrons.  
  • They form metal oxides by combining Oxygen.

for example, if copper is heated in air it forms copper (II) oxide by combining oxygen. 

  • Most metal oxides are insoluble in water but few dissolves in water and form Alkalis. For example, Sodium oxide and Potassium oxide dissolves in water and produces alkalis as-
  • Different metals having different reactivity rate with oxygen. Some metals like Potassium and sodium reacts vigorously with oxygen so they catch fire if kept in open, for protecting accidental fire such metals always kept in kerosene oil. 
  • Silver and gold are not reactive for oxygen even at high temperature.
  • The process of forming a thick oxide layer of aluminium is called Anodising.
  • They form Halides with Halogens.
  • The reactivity of metals varies and the alkali metals i.e. first groups of element are most reactive.
  • Metals react with water to form metal oxides and hydrogen gas. (All metals do not react with water)
  • Magnesium react with hot water (not cold water), and it forms magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen and it starts floating because the bubbles of hydrogen gas gets stick on its surface.
  • Metals like Aluminium, iron and zinc only react with steam (neither hot nor cold water) to form metal oxide and hydrogen.
  • Reaction with Acids– Some metals react with acid to give Salt and Hydrogen gas, but all reactions do not result in same manner. For example, when a metal reacts with Nitric acid, Hydrogen gas does not evolve because HNO3 is strong oxidising agent. The reactivity of metals decreases in order– Mg>Al>Zn>Fe. Copper does not react with Dilute HCL.
  • Most reactive Metals- Ex. Potassium (K), Sodium (Na)
  • Least Reactive-Ex. Silver (Ag), and Gold (Au)

Non Metals- These may be either solids or gases. Bromine is exception which found in Liquid form.  Example of non- metals are Carbon, Sulphur, Iodine, Oxygen, Hydrogen etc.

  • Mostly these are not lustrous, Iodine is lustrous non-metal.
  • They do not conduct heat and electricity. (graphite- allotrope of carbon, is conductor of electricity)
  • Mostly their melting point less than metals. (Diamond, an allotrope of carbon is hardest natural substance, having very high melting and boiling point)
  • Neither malleable nor ductile.
  • They form hydrides reacting with hydrogen.

Metals and Non-metals react as a tendency to attain a completely filled valence shell.

Properties of ionic compounds

  • Ionic compounds are solid and hard as they have strong force of attraction between positive and negative ions. These are mostly brittle and break in to pieces when pressure is applied.
  • Having high melting and boiling point, ex- NaCl- having melting point 1074 and boiling point- 1686.
  • generally soluble in water.
  • ionic compound conduct electricity in molten state.

Occurrence of Metals– The earth crust is major source of metals. The elements or compounds found naturally in earth’s crust are called minerals. The minerals which is containing higher percentage of particular metal and the metal extracted from it, is called ore.

Occurrence of some Metals:

Process of Extraction of metals from their ores is termed metallurgical process. There are many metallurgical operations such as-

  • Smelting– Process of heating of ore above melting point by this whole mixture reduce the ore to metal. It is a chemical changing process.
  • Flux– flux is the substance added to ore during the process of smelting for removing gangue (impurities).
  • Slag– The waste material formed by chemical combination of gangue and flux during extraction of metal is called Slag.
  • Calcination– Volatile impurities of most ores are removed by strong heating, the process is called calcination.
  • Roasting– In this process Ore is heated below its melting point at a constant temperature in controlled air supply is called roasting. For example-  impurities like sulphur, arsenic etc oxidised and converts in volatile oxides and by this only metallic oxides remains.
  • Concentration of ore– By this process gangue is separated from ore. The processes of concentration of ores are:
    •  Hand picking,
    • Gravity separation- ores of higher density
    • Oil floatation- sulphide ores
    • Process of magnetic concentration- impurities of ore
    • leaching process.
  • Refining of metals– Extraction of pure metal from impure metals produced by various processes. In refining the widely used process is Electrolytic refining. Electrolytic refining is used for Zinc, nickel, silver, gold, etc.

Example of some important metals and their utilities

Viceroys of India

Viceroys of India and significant Events in their rule

1. Lord Canning (1858-1862)

  • He served as last governor general during 1856- 57.
  • The Government of India Act, 1858– Transfer of power to the Crown from East India Company.  
  • White mutiny by European troops -1859.
  • The Police Act of 1861, and
  •  Indian Council Act of 1861

2. Lord Elgin I (1862-63)

  • Wahabi Movement

3. Lord John Lawrence (1864-1869)

  • Bhutan war – 1865.
  • Establishment of High court at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865.

4. Lord Mayo (1869-1872)

  • Rojkot College in Kathiwar and Mayo college at Ajmer.
  • Statistical survey of India Established.
  • Department of Agriculture and commerce established.
  • State railway introduced.

5. Lord Northbrook (1872-76)

  • Prince of Wales visit in 1875.
  • Trail of Gaekwar of Baroda.
  • The Kuka movement in Punjab.

6. Lord Lytton (1876- 1880)

  • Famine (scarcity of food) of 1876-78, Under presidency of Richard Strachey- appointment of Famine Commission in 1878.
  • Royal title Act of 1876- Queen Victoria assumed the title – ‘Kaiser-i-Hind ‘or ‘Queen Empress of India”. By this the theory came that Britain would protect Indian states from internal as well as external problems.
  • The Vernacular Press Act 1878.
  • The Arm Act- 1878.
  • The second afghan War 1878-1880.

7.Lord Ripon (1880-1884)

  • Vernacular Press Act Repealed in 1882.
  • For improving Labour conditions – The First Factory Act 1881.
  • Resolution of government on Local self-government -1882
  • Under chairman Sir William Hunter- Education Commission Appointed.
  • The controversy of Ilbert bill 1883-84.

8. Lord Dufferin (1884- 1888)

  • Third Burmese War (1885-86)
  • Indian National Congress established.

9. Lord Lansdowne (1888- 1894).

  • Factory Act of 1891.
  • Civil services categorised in to imperial, provisional, and subordinate.
  • Indian Council Act-1892.
  • Durand commission – 1893- for defining Duran line between India and Afghanistan, (now in between Pakistan and Afghanistan, it also touches small portion of India in POK).  

10. Lord Elgin II (1894-1899)

  • Chapekar Brothers assassinated two British officilas-1897.

11. Lord Curzon (1899- 1905)

  • To review Police administration- The Police commission appointed in 1902 – Under Sir Andrew Frazer.
  • University Commission- 1902 and Indian Universities Act- 1904
  • Calcutta Corporation Act- 1899.
  • Ancient Monument Preservation Act-1904.
  • Partition of Bengal- 1905.
  • Curzon- Kitchener controversy.
  • Younghusband’s Mission to Tibet – 1904.

12. Lord Minto II (1905-1910)

  • Anti-partition and Swadeshi Movement Popularized.  
  • In annual session of 1907, there was split in Congress.
  • Aga Khan Established Muslim league in 1906.

13. Lord Harding II (1910-1916)

  • Like Bombay and Madras the Bengal Presidency was Created in 1911.
  • The Capital transferred from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911.
  • Madan Mohan Malaviya established Hindu Mahasabha in 1915.
  • Coronation durbar- King George V held in Delhi in 1911.

14. Lord Chelmsford (1916-21)

  • Annie Besant and Tilak formed Home Rule Leagues in 1916.
  • Lucknow session of congress 1916.
  • Lucknow pact – between Congress nad Muslim League in 1916.
  • foundation of Sabarmati Ashram – 1916.
  • Champaran Satyagraha – 1916
  • Kheda Satyagraha-1918.
  • Satyagraha at Ahmedabad- 1918.
  • Montague’s August Declaration- 1917.
  • Government of India Act- 1919.
  • Rowlett Act- 1919,
  • The Jallianwalla Bagh massacre- 1919.
  • Non Cooperation and Khilafat Movement launched.
  • Saddler’s commission 1917-for reform in Educational Policy.
  • Death of Tilak – 1 August 1920.
  • First Indian Became a governor- S.P.Sinha appointed as Governor of Bihar.

15. Lord Reading (1919- 1926)

  • The incidence of Chauri Chaura- February 5, 1922 and withdrawal of Non- Cooperation Movement.
  • Moplah rebellion- kerala in 1921.
  • Repeal of press Act 1910 and Rowlatt Act of 1919.
  • Robbery in Kakori train- 1925.
  • C.R Dass and Motilal Nehru established the Swaraj Party – 1922.
  • Examination for ICS Both in London and Delhi, came in effect from 1923.

16. Lord Irwin (1926- 1931)

  • Simon commission in India- 1928.
  • For the suggestion (Frame) of constitution of India, A conference of all parties held at Lucknow in 1928, the report called Nehru Report.
  • Murder of Saunders, Bomb blast in Assembly hall of Delhi,1929
  • Purna Swaraj Resolution in !929 in Lahore session of Congress.
  • Gandhi started Dandi March (12 march,1930), Launched Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • “Deepavali Declaration” by Lord Irwin – 1929.
  • Gandhi – Irwin Pact- 1931 and Civil Disobedience Movement suspended.

17. Lord Willingdon (1931- 1936)

  • Second round table Conference (1931) failed and Civil disobedience movement resumed.
  • Separate communal electorate setup.
  • Poona Pact 1932.
  • Third Round Table Conference 1932.
  • Individual Civil Disobedience- 1933.
  • The government of India Act of- 1935.
  • All India Kishan Sabha Established- 1936
  • Congress Socialist Party – 1934- By Acharya Narendra Dev and Jayaprakash Narayan.
  • Burma Separated from India in 1935.

18. Lord Linlithgow (1936- 1944)

  • Congress got absolute majority in First General Election- 1936-37.
  • In the 51st session of congress (1938) Subhash Chandra Bose elected as president of the congress.
  • August offer- 1940.
  • In 1940 – Winston Churchill was elected as prime minister of England.
  • Quit India Resolution- 1942 ( crips offer failed, Prominent leaders arrested)
  • “Divide and Quit” slogan at Karachi session -1944, of Muslim League.

19. Lord Wavell (1944- 1947)

  • C.R Formula- 1944, (Gandhi and Jinnah Talk Failed as Jinnah rejected the offer because he wanted congress to accept the two-nation theory).
  • Wavell Plan (Shimla Conference- June 1945)
  • End of second world war in 1945.
  • Cabinet Mission (May 1946).
  • ‘Direct Action Day’- 16 August 1946, also called 1946 “Calcutta killings” by Muslim league.
  • Interim Government was formed by Congress in September 1946. (September 2,1946- August 15, 1947.)
  • The end of British Rule in India was announced on February 20,1947- by Clement Attlee (PM of England).  

20. Lord Mountbatten (1947-1948)

  • Indian Independence Bill introduced in House of commons.
  • Boundary commission appointed under Sir Cyril Redcliff for partition.

Governors General of India

(Modern history- Governors general   of India and Significant events in their rule)                                                                                                  

1.Warren Hastings (1773-1785)

  • Regulating Act of 1773
  • Power of jurisdiction divided between Governor general and supreme court of Calcutta under Act of 1781.
  • Pitts India Act of 1784
  • Foundation of Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1784.

Wars during his ruling time

  • In 1774 the Rohilla war.
  • First Maratha war in 1775-82 and Treaty of Salbai in 1782
  • 2nd Mysore War (Haidar Ali against British) in 1780-84

2. Lord Cornwallis (1786-1793)

  • Third Mysore war 1790-92 (death of Tipu Sultan in 1792) and treaty of Seringapatam in 1792.
  • Cornwallis Code – 1793, incorporated many judicial reforms, separation of civil jurisdiction and revenue administration.
  • In 1793, the permanent settlement of Bengal.
  • Introduction of civil services.

3. Sir John shore (1793- 1798)

  • The charter Act of 1793
  • In 1795, Battle of kharda between Maratha and Nizam.  

4. Lord Wellesley (1798-1805)

  • Subsidiary alliance system introduced in 1798, the first Alliance was with the Nizam of Hyderabad. (In subsidiary Alliance the Indian states forced or compelled to have a British official as resident at court and also to accept permanent British force and pay a subsidy for its maintenance.)  
  • The fourth Mysore war, 1799.
  • 2nd Maratha war- 1803- 05.
  • The administration of Tanjore-1799, Surat-1800, and Carnatic- 1801 was taken over.
  • Treaty of Bassein- 1802.

5. Sir George Barlow (1805-1807)

  • Mutiny of Vellore-1806.

6.Lord Minto I – (1807- 1813)

  • In 1809 the treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh.

7. Lord Hastings (1813-1823)

  • The Anglo-Nepal war (1814-1816) – Nepal defeated, and the Treaty of Sagauli in 1816.
  • Third Maratha war- (1817-19)- Maratha defeated, Bombay presidency created in 1818.
  • Treaty of Sindhia in 1817.
  • Thomas Munro the Governor of Madras established Ryotwari system in 1820.

8. Lord Amherst (1823-1828)

  • First Burmese War – (1824-1826).
  • Bharatpur was captured in 1820.

9. Lord William Bentick (1828-1835)

  • Abolition of sati and other cruel rights in 1829.
  • Subduing Thugs in 1830.
  • Charter Act of 1833.
  • Educational reforms and English was introduced as official language.
  • Occupation of Mysore (1831), coorg (1834), central cachar in 1834.
  • Treaty of friendship with Ranjeet singh.
  • Abolition of provincial court of appeal and other circuits settled by Cornwallis, appointment of commissioners of revenue and circuit.  

10. Lord Metcalfe (1835-36)

  • He removed restrictions on press by New press law.

11. Lord Auckland (1836-42)

  • During his time- First Afghan war (1838-42)
  • Death of Ranjeet Singh (1839).

12. Lord Ellenborough (1842-1844)

  • Invasion of Sindh – 1843.
  • War with Gwalior- 1843.

13. Lord Harding- I (1844-1848)

  • First Anglo Sikh war in 1845-46, Punjab army defeated, Treaty of Lahore in 1846.
  • Abolition of female infanticides and other social reforms like Human sacrifice.

14. Lord Dalhousie (1848- 1856)

  • 2nd Anglo Sikh war 1848-49, invasion of Punjab.
  • Invasion of Pegu or Lower Burma in 1852.
  • Doctrine of Lapse introduced and occupation of Satara- 1848, Jaitpur and Sambhalpur- 1849, Udaipur- 1852, Jhansi- 1853, Nagpur- 1854, and Awadh- 1856.
  • ‘Wood’s Educational dispatch- 1854, Anglo vernacular schools and Government colleges opened.
  • First railway line lay down in 1853, connecting Bombay and Thane.
  • Telegraph (1851) connecting- Calcutta with Bombay, Madras and Peshawar.
  • Postal reforms – Post office Act- 1854
  • 1855- Santhal Rebellion.
  • Widow Remarriage Act-1856.
India During Dalhousie’s Administration.

15. Lord Canning (1856- 1857)

  • University of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay established in 1857.
  • revolt of 1857.

Delhi sultanate, Mughals and mind map of Modern History

Mind Map: As we are going through the notes of the Modern history, I found the need of mind map for the entire process whatever happened in short. It included the significant event happened in British India , the most important personalities (we are not able to mention all) who contributed and the main issues which were faced on that time . Other previous important events linked with modern Indian History like Mughals and Delhi Sultanate.

Mind map of modern history.

Other content linked with modern history- (Before Modern, we should Aware for these, we will discuss the Delhi sultanate and Mughals in details in other blog)

Delhi sultanate

Mamluk or Slave Dynasty- Founded by Qutub-ud-din Aibak (1206-1211)

  • Iltutmish (1211- 36)
  • Rajiya Sultan (1236-40)


  • Jalaluddin Khilji (1290-96)
  • Allauddin khilji (1296-1316)


  • ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq (1320-24)
  • Muhammad bin-Tughluq (1325-51)
  • Firoz shah Tughluq (1351-88)
  • Sultan Nasir-ud-din Tughluq (1394-1413)

Sayyid Dynasty-(1414-1451)

Lodi’s- (1451-1526)

  • BahlolLodi– (1451-1489)
  • Sikandar Lodi-(1489-1517) 
  • Ibrahim lodi- (1517-26)          


  • Humayun(1530-40, 1554-56)
  • Akbar- (1556-1605)
  • Jahangir-(1605-27)
  • Shah jahan (1628-57)
  • Aurangzeb- (1658-1707)- after Aurangzeb the decline of Mughals initiated. After Aurangzeb there are external as well as internal challenges in front of Mughals. External challenge as invasions of foreigners Internal challenge as weak rulers in empire.
  • Bahadur shah – (1707-12)
  • Jahandar shah-(1712-13)
  • Farrkuhsiyar-(1713-18)
  • Muhammad shah- (1719-48)- Nadir Shah Persian emperor attacked in his reign in(1738-39). He looted peacock throne and Kohinoor diamond with seventy crore rupees.
  • Ahmad shah-(1748-54)- He was incompetent ruler, he left the empire in hand of Udham bai. Ahmed Shah Abdali or Ahmed shah durrani was the successor of Nadir Shah- Invaded India several times between 1748 and 1767.
  • Alamgir II- (1754-1759)
  • Shah Alam-(1759-1806)– He issued ferman to granting right to the Brithish to collect revenue of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa . After him Mughals became pensioner of English.
  • Akbar II- (1806-37)- Given title “Raja” to Rammohan Rai.
  • Bahadur Shah II- (1837-57)– Captured by British in 1857 revolt and sent to rangoon. Died in 1862.

Most Important Dams in India

Our country India is country of various rivers. There are many dams on rivers are build for many purposes and to fulfills our needs.

The questions related to the dams are always asked in competitive exams like UPSC, UPPCS, other state PSCs and other competitive exams. So here we have noted in tabular form some most important dams with river and State to which they belong.

UriJhelumJammu and Kashmir
Dulhasti DamChenabJammu and Kashmir
Salal DamChenabJammu and Kashmir
BagliharChenabJammu and Kashmir
Ranjeet sagar Dam also called Thein damRaviPunjab(on boarder of Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir)
Bhakra Nangal Dam (New temple and Resurgent India- Jwahar lal naehru)SutlejHimachal Pradesh (Bhakra in himachal and nangal in Punjab)
Pong DamBeasHimachal Pradesh
Nathpa Jhakri DamSutlejHimachal Pradesh
Tehri Dam(tallest dam in India)BhagirathiUttarakhand
Dhauliganga DamDhauligangaUttarakhand
Rihand Dam(reservoir-Govind ballabh pant sagar Dam- largest manmade lake)rihandUttar Pradesh
Rani lakshmibai Dam also called Rajghat damBetwaUttar Pradesh
Matatila DAmBetwaUttar Pradesh
Hirakund Dam(longest Dam)MahanadiOdisha
Tilaiya Dam And Maithan DamBarakar(Tributary of Damodar)Jharkhand
Panchet DamDamodarJharkhand
Jwahar sagar DamChambalRajasthan
Mahi Bajaj Sagar DamMahiRajasthan
Bilashpur DamBanasRajasthan
Ranapratap Sagar DamChambalRajasthan
Sardar Sarovar DamNarmadaGujarat
Ukai dam and kakrapar DamTaptiGujarat
Koyna DamKoyna riverMaharashtra
Ujani DamBhima RiverMaharashtra
Jayakwadi DamGodavari RiverMaharashtra
Gandhi Sagar DamChambalM.P
Indra SagarNarmadaM.P
Krishna rajas agar DamKaveriKarnataka
Tunga Bhadra DamTunga BhadraKarnataka
Almatti DamKrishnaKarnataka
Pochampad Dam(sri ram sagar Project)GodavariTelangana
Nagarjuna sagar dam (India’s largest masonary Dam)KrishnaTelangana
Srisailam DamKrishnaAndhra Pradesh
Somasila DamPennarAndhra Pradesh
Idukki (largest Arch dam in India)PeriyarKerala
Bansura Sagar DamKabiniKerala
KallanaI DamCauveryT.N
Mettur DamCauveryT.N
Important dams in India
Map of India – Dams and Rivers

Modern History Notes series-3(Advent of Europeans in India)

The English in India (British in India)

The English came in India as a trading company with charter of Queen Elizabeth I. The name of that trading company was –Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies. The English company was very progressive in India, as this was very interested in benefits of trade.

  • Captain Hawkins arrived in India in the court of Jahangir in April 1609, for establishing a factory in Surat but he failed on that time because of opposition of Portuguese. They started trading at Masulipatnam on the south-eastern coast of India and later established a factory in 1616.
  • King of Portugal gifted to Bombay to King Charles II as he married to Portuguese princess Catherine, and then Bombay was given east India company on an annual payment of ten pounds in 1668.
  • The headquarter shifted from Surat to Bombay in 1687.

As the English position was improving, and it was moreover improved by ‘The Golden Farman’ issued to them by the Sultan of Golconda in 1632. They extended their trading activities towards east and started factories at Hariharpur in the Mahanadi delta and at Balasore (Odisha) in 1633.

  • They became very strong in Bengal. They allowed by Shah Shuja the “subahdar of Bengal” to trade in Bengal in return of Rs 3000 annual payment in 1651 and started factories at Hooghly in 1651, after that the other places like Kasimbazar, Patna, and Rajmahal were taken.
  • The English were now succeeded to get the permission for buying Zamindari for three month of villages of Sutanauti, Gobindapur, and Kalikata(kalighat) on payment on Rs. 1200 in 1698. It was named Fort William in year 1700 and became seat of Eastern Presidency (Calcutta), Sir Charles Eyer was the first president.
  • Now the time was coming as the main deal worked under John Saruman as the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar made three famous Farman’s by giving the Company many valuable privileges in the Bengal, Gujarat and Hyderabad. These farmans regarded the Magna Carta of the company. In these Magna Carta the Important terms were-
    • In Bengal, Company’s imports and exports were exempted from additional customs duties excepting the annual payment of Rs. 3,000 as settled earlier.
    • The Company got permission to issue dastaks (passes) for the transportation of such goods.
    • The Company got permission to rent more lands around Calcutta.
    • The Company retained its existing privilege of freedom from duties of trade and had to pay the prevailing rent only for Madras in Hyderabad.
    • It was conditioned that the coins of the Company minted at Bombay were to have currency throughout the Mughal empire.

After all the trading and benefit they were very interested in politics, and gaining power in India. 

The French in India

The French were the last Europeans which come to India for trade and benefit purpose. The Compagnie des Indes Orientales (French East India Company), laid by the minister of king Louis XIV in 1664, the king was also very interested in the company.

  • This company was granted a 50-years monopoly on French trade in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. After that in 1667 setting up a factory in Surat in India.
  • Mercara, a Persian an assistance of Caron, founded another French factory in Masulipatnam in 1669, after getting a patent from the Sultan of Golconda.
  • French obtained permission from Shaista Khan (Mughal subahdar of Bengal) to establish a township at Chandernagore near Calcutta in 1673.
  • The French were also interested in power and politics in India like English. So they started to obtain power in India.

The Nerve Centre of French power in was Pondicherry. In 1673, Sher Khan Lodi (the governor of Valikondapuram) granted a site for a settlement to director of the Masulipatnam factory (Francois Martin).

In 1674 After taking charge of Pondicherry, Francois Martin developed it as a place of importance. It strengthened the power of French in India, but the power was badly affected as the Pondicherry was captured by Dutch in 1693.

  • Treaty of Ryswick restored Pondicherry to the French in 1697. (treaty in between Dutch and French)
  • French had also the drawback as Francois Martin died on December 31, 1706.

Reorganization of French company

After these drawbacks the French company reorganised in 1720 as the ‘Perpetual Company of the Indies’ and regain its strength and enhanced by the governors Lenoir and Dumas between 1720 and 1742. 

For supremacy the Anglo- French Struggle: Carnatic Wars

As we know both of these companies came for trade but after some time both get interested in politics and gaining power in India

First Carnatic War – (1740-48)– the name Carnatic war given by Europeans to the Coromandel coast and its hinterland. The immediate reason of the first Carnatic war was ‘the English navies under Barnet seized some French ships to provoke France.’ After that France reacted by seizing Madras in 1746 with the help of Mauritius, the Isle of France, under Admiral La Bourdonnais, the French governor of Mauritius. Thus first Carnatic war begun.

  • The war ended in 1748 with Treaty of Aix-La Chapelle was signed.
  • A small French army under Captain Paradise was defeated the strong Indian army under Mahfuz Khan at St. Thome (madras) on the banks of the River Adyar. The defeat was a hint for British and they found that a well organised small army can defat large number of Indian army as there was no discipline in them for war.

Second Carnatic War -(1749-54)- The background of this war was rivalry in India. In first Carnatic war French succeeded in the Leadership of Dupleix. That strengthen the French power.

  • Immediate cause of war– Death of Nizam-ul-Mulk in 1748, who was founder of the independent kingdom of Hyderabad and the Nawab of Carnatic- Chanda sahib was released by marathas. Nasir jang the son of the Nizam opposed Muzaffar jang son of Nwab also claimed for throne.
  • The French supported claims of Muzaffar Jang and Chanda Sahib in the Deccan and Carnatic, respectively, while the English were with Nasir Jang and Anwar-ud-din.
  • Result– In the result of the war the French faced heavy loss of finance and recalled Dupleix in 1754.
  • As French governor-general in India Godeheu succeeded Dupleix.

Third Carnatic War -(1758-63)- In 1758 the English forts of St. David and Vizianagaram was captured by French army.

  • Battle of Wandiwash –The battle of the Third Carnatic War was won by the English on January 22, 1760 at Wandiwash or Vandavasi in Tamil Nadu.
  • Ended with Treaty of Peace of Paris in1763 and restored to the French their factories in India. After this war the French political power was gone.

The English proved the supreme European power in the Indian subcontinent, and Dutch had already been defeated in the Battle of Bidara in 1759.

  • After battle of Plassey (1757) it is said that the British rule over India started.

Main Causes of the English Success than other Europeans

  • Structure and Nature of the Trading Companies- It was formed by various rival companies, and had control of a board of directors whose members were elected annually.
  • Naval Superiority- The British royal navy was largest and most advanced on that time.
  • Industrial Revolution- In England the Industrial Revolution started in  early 18th century,machines like the spinning Jenny, steam engine, the power loom and several other new machines were invented.
  • Military Skill and Discipline- British soldiers were a disciplined and well trained. Smaller groups of English fighters defeat larger armies.
  • Stable Government- British had stable government than other Europian.
  • They had Lesser Zeal for Religion-  They were less interested in spreading Christianity, as compared to Spain, Portugal or the Dutch.
  • Use of Debt Market-They use the debt markets to fund its wars.

Modern History Notes series-2(Advent of the Europeans in India)

Advent of the Europeans in India

The Portuguese

There was need of a sea route to India for trade as European countries growing rapidly and they need a market for supply and for spices. The Portuguese were first followed by the Dutch, English, Danes and the French respectively to reach India.

  • Portuguese navigator, Vasco-Da-Gama arrived at Calicut in May 1498, on that time the Hindu ruler of Calicut was Zamorin (Samuthiri), welcomed him very friendly.
  • Vasco da Gama stayed in India for three months. On the time of returning to Portugal, he carried back with Cargoes and by selling it in his region got huge profit. After watching this, other profit-seeking merchants of European tempted to come India for trade and benefit.
  • Pedro Alvarez Cabral arrived in September 1500, for trade of spices, negotiated and established a factory at Calicut.
  • Vasco da Gama came again in India in 1501 and set up a trading factory at Cannanore. Calicut, Cannanore and Cochin became the important trade centres of the Portugues.
  • In 1505, the King of Portugal appointed Francisco De Almeida as governor in India for a three-year term and he was asked to consolidate the position of the Portuguese in India and to destroy Muslim trade by seizing Aden, Ormuz and Malacca.
  • Almeida’s vision was to make the Portuguese the master of the Indian Ocean. His policy was known as the Blue Water Policy (cartaze system).
  • after Almeida, The Alfonso de Albuquerque came as the Portuguese governor in India and he was the real founder of the Portuguese power in the East, He secured Portugal’s strategic control of the Indian Ocean by establishing bases overlooking all the entrances to the sea.
  • Albuquerque acquired Goa from the Sultan of Bijapur in 1510.
  • Bitter persecution of Muslims was one serious drawback of Albuquerque’s policy.
  • Nino da Cunha the Portuguese governor in India in November 1529 shifted the headquarters of the Portuguese government from Cochin to Goa in India.

Portuguese State

Portuguese only wanted to increase their influence and trade in India. Within 50 years of Vasco Da Gama arrival many coastal parts were under Portuguese power.

  • They occupied sixty miles of coast around Goa, On the west coast from Mumbai to Daman and Diu to the approaches to Gujarat, they controlled a narrow tract with four important ports and hundreds of towns and villages. In south chain of seaport fortresses and trading-posts like Mangalore, Cannanore, Cochin, and Calicut. And though their power in Malabar was not consolidated and in the east coast at San Thome (in Chennai) and Nagapatnam (in Andhra).
  • Towards the end of the sixteenth century they grown, a wealthy settlement at Hooghly in West Bengal.
  • The Portuguese, were first Europeans to come to India, and were the last to leave. In 1961 the Government of India recaptured Goa, Daman and Diu from them.

Portuguese Administration in India

  • The head of the administration was the viceroy who served for three years, his secretary, and a council.
  • Vedor da Fazenda, employed for revenues and the cargoes and dispatch of fleets.

Religious Policy of the Portuguese

Intolerant for the Muslims and the Portuguese were initially quite tolerant towards the Hindus but after Inquisition in Goathere was a change and Hindus were also persecuted.They tried many times to convert Akbar’s religion in Christianity.

Lose faith of Mughals in Portuguese

  • In 1608, Captain William Hawkins with his ship Hector reached Surat, with a letter from James I, the king of England to the Mughal court of Jahangir, requesting permission to do business in India.
  • In November 1612, the English ship Dragon under Captain Best along with a little ship, the Osiander, successfully fought a Portuguese fleet.
  • Portuguese also started a cruel slave trade by purchasing or seizing Hindu and Muslim children, whom they brought up as Christians. On June 24, 1632, the Mughal siege of Hooghly began, captured totally after three months. Shah Jahan ordered the Bengal governor Qasim Khan to take action against the Portuguese.

Factors for Decline of the Portuguese

  • Portuguese lost their commercial influence in India by 18th century. The religious policies of the Portuguese, such as the activities of the Jesuits, gave rise to political fears.
  • Strong reaction was also evoked by their dishonest trade practices.
  • The discovery of Brazil diverted colonising activities of Portugal to the West.
  • The union of the two kingdoms of Spain and Portugal in 1580-81, had war with England and Holland, which badly affected Portuguese monopoly of trade in India.
  • Monopoly of knowledge of the sea route to India held by the Portuguese ended, Dutch and English also get these skills.
  • The spices trade was under the control of the Dutch, and Goa was superseded by Brazil as the economic centre of the overseas empire of Portugal.
  • In 1683, after two naval assaults, the Marathas invaded Goa.
                                             Rise and Fall of Portuguese
1498Vasco-da-Gama arrived at Calicut and his grand reception by the local king, Zamorin.
1503:Establishment of the first Portuguese fort at Cochin.
1505:Establishment of the second Portuguese fort at Cannanore
1509Defeat of the combined fleet of Gujarat, Egypt and Zamorin by the Portuguese governor Francisco Almeida
1510:Alfonso Albuquerque, the Portuguese governor, captures Goa from Bijapur
1530Declaration of Goa as the Portuguese capital
1535Subjugation of Diu.
1559The Portuguese capture Daman
1596:Ouster of the Portuguese by the Dutch from South-east Asia.
1612:Loss of Surat to the English
1663:The Dutch win all Portuguese forts on the Malabar coast to oust the Portuguese

The Dutch

  • Houtman was the first Dutchman to reach Sumatra and Bantam in 1596.
  • The Dutch founded their first factory in Masulipatnam (in Andhra) in 1605. They captured Nagapatam near Madras (Chennai) from the Portuguese.
  • They established factories on the Coromandel coast, in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Bengal and Bihar.
  • They opened a factory in Pulicat, north of Madras in 1609.
  • Other principal factories in India were at Surat (1616), Bimlipatam (1641), Karaikal (1645), Chinsura (1653), Baranagar, Kasimbazar (near Murshidabad), Balasore, Patna, Nagapatam (1658) and Cochin (1663).
  • In the battle of Hooghly (November 1759), Dutch defeated by English, and it crushed Dutch’s ambition of trade in India as they were not interested in empire building in India.

Their main trade was:           

(will continue in next series… Thank you..)

Biological classification

Classification of organisms was the most convenient need as it became very important for our daily life, food, shelter, therefore many attempt was done but these don’t have any scientific base. First of all, the Aristotle attempt scientific basis for classification. Aristotle used simple morphological characters to classify plants into trees, shrubs and herbs. He also divided animals on the basis of red blood containing and one which had not red blood.

Two kingdom classification

Linnaeus introduced Two Kingdom classification system as Plantae and Animalia, it just divides plants animals, did not distinguished eukaryotes, prokaryotes, unicellular or multicellular. The two kingdom system was inadequate as many organisms did not fit in either category.

Five kingdom classification

In 1969 R.H. Whittaker proposed a Five Kingdom Classification. These kingdoms defined by him were named as Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.

The main criteria for classification he used were –cell structure, body organization, mode of nutrition, reproduction and phylogenetic relationships.

the Five Kingdoms

Kingdom Monera

The main members of the Kingdom Monera is bacteria.

  • Since only bacteria are prokaryotic which lacking a true nucleus, i.e. without a nuclear membrane, Monera is the only prokaryotic kingdom.
  • Bacteria were the first cellular organisms to evolve on the planet earth after life originated around 3.5 billion years ago and were the only cellular organisms on earth for almost the next two billion years.
  • Monerans are also the most numerous organisms than other cellular organisms.
  • Monerans occur almost everywhere as they can survive in worst conditions.

Bacteria are grouped under four categories based on their shape:

  1. the spherical Coccus (plural: cocci),
  2. the rod-shaped Bacillus (plural: bacilli),
  3. the comma-shaped Vibrium (plural: vibrio) and
  4. the spiral Spirillum (plural: spirilla)

Fig. various shapes of bacteria.

Structure of a bacterial cell -The structure of bacteria is very simple. The single celled bacteria contain –

  • cell wall is made up of a chemical, peptidoglycan, lipids, polysaccharides and some proteins.
  • Pili – these are short and thin thread like tubular structures projecting out from the cell wall found in some bacteria.
  • Some bacteria move with the help of one or more flagella.
  • Prokaryotes have no nuclear membrane around genetic material and no membrane bound cell organelles except mesosomes. They have only the 70s ribosomes

Mode of Nutrition in monera

  • Autotrophic mode – synthesize their own organic food.
  • Saprotrophic mode – these feed on dead organic matter.
  • Symbionts –they use food from other living organisms with which they are associated for mutual benefit.
  • Parasites –In this type of nutrition absorbs food from living organisms and cause harm to them.


These are very special, 16S RNA is present in them which is unique, and can survive in any harsh situation such as extremely salty areas (halophiles), can live in hot springs (thermoacidophiles) and marshy areas (methanogens).

  • Archaebacteria is different from other bacteria as they consist a different cell wall structure and this feature is responsible for their survival in worst and extreme conditions.
  • Archaebacteria also known as living fossils.
    • Methanogens- found in the gut of several ruminant animals such as cows and buffaloes and they are responsible for the production of methane (biogas) from the dung of these animals. These are Obligate anaerobic. eg. methanobacterium, methanococcus.
    • Halophiles- Anaerobic bacteria, found in strong Salty Halobacterium (it also forms ATP from solar energy).
    • Thermoacidophiles- Aerobic bacteria, Found in acidic sulphur springs. eg-Sulfolbus, Thermoproteus. (they oxidize Sulphur to sulphuric acid.
    • Importance of Archaebacteria-
  • They are mostly used in biotechnology, Generation of biogas, Thermophilic enzymes, Biosensors, etc.

Eubacteria- Thousands of different eubacteria or ‘true bacteria’ are found. Their characteristic feature is rigid cell wall, and if they are motile, consists a flagellum.

Their respiration is of following types-

  • 1.Obligate Aerobes- bacillus sublitis
  • 2.Facultative anaerobes- clostridium tetani
  • 3.Obligate anaerobes- clostridium botulinum
  • 4.Facultative aerobes- Rhodopseudomonas

Reproduction in bacteria-

  • Asexual method -By Fission, budding, spore formation.
  • Sexual method- Transformation, conjugation, Transduction.
  • The cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) have ‘chlorophyll a’ similar to green plants and these are photosynthetic autotrophs.
  • cyanobacteria are unicellular, colonial or filamentous, freshwater/marine or terrestrial algae.
  • They form blooms in polluted water bodies.
  • Bacteria like Nostoc and Anabaena can fix atmospheric nitrogen in specialised cells called heterocyst.
  • Some are chemosynthetic autotropic bacteria these oxidises various inorganic substances like nitrates, nitrites and ammonia and use the released energy for their ATP production.
  • Heterotrophic bacteria are most abundant in nature, as decomposers.
  • Some are helpful in various manner and some are dangers like disease causing and other major damages.
  • They play important role in human life by helping in making curd from milk (lactobacillus bacteria), production of antibiotics (Streptomyces), fixing nitrogen in legume roots (Rhizobia).
  • Some are pathogens, which cause damage to human beings, crops, farm animals and pets.
  • Cholera, typhoid, tetanus, citrus canker are well known diseases caused by different bacteria.
  • Mycoplasma are organism in which the cell wall completely absent. This is smallest living cell which can survive without oxygen.       


Organisms Protista are unicellular eukaryotes chrysophytes (unicellular algae) diatoms and Protozoa are included in it. The term ‘Protista’ Given by German biologist Ernst Haeckel in 1866.

  • These are primarily aquatic.
  • The Protistan cell body consists of a well-defined nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.
  • Some protist consists flagella or cilia for movement.
  • Reproduction by both process- asexually and sexually by a process involving cell fusion and zygote formation.

Chrysophytes(unicellular algae)

In this group diatoms and golden algae (desmids) are placed.

  • They are aquatic, found in fresh water as well as in marine environments.
  • These are microscopic organisms and floats passively in water currents (plankton). Mostly these are photosynthetic.
  • In Diatoms shell in formed by the cell wall, embedded with silica. Diatom’s cell wall cannot be destructed and they get accumulated over years. So ‘diatomaceous earth’ is termed as after billions of years’ large amount of cell wall will be deposited.
  • Diatoms referred chief ‘producers’ in the oceans.


these are mostly marine and photosynthetic, found in various colour because of pigment they contains. They may appear yellow, green, brown, blue or red in colour.

  • Cell was made up of cellulose.
  • Mostly they consist two flagella; one lies longitudinally and the other transversely in between the wall plates
  • Some undergo rapid multiplication, for example- red dinoflagellates (Example: Gonyaulax) undergo rapid multiplication and it make thesea appear red (red tides). These algae’s releases toxins which is disaster for other marine organisms, even it can kill other marine animals like fishes.


These are fresh water organisms found in stagnant water. Consisting a protein rich layer called pellicle which makes their body flexible.

  • They consist two flagella, a short and another is long.
  • They are autotropic as well as heterotrophic i.e. in the presence of sunlight they are photosynthetic and in the absence of sunlight they behave like heterotrophs and predating on other smaller organisms.
  • They contain pigment as Chlorophyll, Example: Euglena.

Slime Moulds

These are saprophytic protists. Grows and survive on dead and decaying organic materials.

slime mould

They can live as a single cell as well in colonies. Their aggregation is called Plasmodium. Differentiation of plasmodium in unfavourable condition, they survive in any condition as it is extremely resistant and can survive for many years.


They are heterotrophs and live as predators or parasites on other organisms. These are called primitive relatives of animals. Four major groups of protozoans-

  • Amoeboid protozoans: These organisms can live in fresh water, sea water or moist soil. consisting pseudopodia (false feet) for movement and predation. Ex-Amoeba.

The marine protozoans having silica shells on their surface.

  • Flagellated protozoans: these may be free living or parasite. Flagellais found in them.
    •  Diseases caused by parasitic forms such as sleeping sickness. Example: Trypanosoma.
  • Ciliated protozoans: These are aquatic organisms. Active movement found in organisms because of the presence of thousands of cilia.
  • Body consists a cavity (gullet) which opens outside cell surface.
  • Coordination in movement of rows of cilia causes the water laden with food to be steered into the gullet. Example: Paramoecium
  • Sporozoans: These organisms haveing an infectious spore-like stage in their life cycle.
  • Plasmodium- malarial parasite, causes malaria, a disease which has a hazardous effect on human population.


Fungi are eukaryotic organism which is either unicellular or multicellular saprotrophs having filaments which grow through soil, wood and other substrates.

  • This is a unique kingdom of heterotrophic organisms. Fungi exist as slender thread like filaments called hyphae.
  • Hypha may be one celled or multicelled and has, one or more nuclei. Yeast, however, is single celled, and uninucleate.
  • Their cell walls are made of chitin and polysaccharides. A group of hyphae forming a network is called mycelium (mycetos meaning fungus).
  • Aquatic fungi have flagellate gametes or flagellate spores
  • Higher fungi do not have flagellum at any stage of life cycle.
  • Reproduction in fungi is both asexual by means of flagelalte or non-flagellate spores and sexual through conjugation
  • These are divided in various classes on the basis of morphology.
    • Phycomycetes
    • Ascomycetes
    • Basidiomycetes
    • Deuteromycetes


These are found in aquatic habitats, decaying wood in moist and damp places or as obligate parasites on plants.

  • The mycelium (consists of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae) is aseptate and coenocytic( multinucleate cell ).
  • Asexual reproduction is through zoospores (motile) or by aplanospores (non-motile). A zygospore is formed by fusion of two gametes.
  • These gametes may be similar in morphology (isogamous) or dissimilar (anisogamous or oogamous).
  • examples are Mucor , Rhizopus(the bread mould mentioned earlier) and Albugo (the parasitic fungi on mustard).

Ascomycetes- also called sac-fungi.

  • They are mostly multicellular, e.g., Penicillium, or rarely unicellular, e.g., yeast (Saccharomyces).
  • They may be saprophytic, decomposers, parasitic or coprophilous (growing on dung).
  • In ascomycetes the mycelium found branched and septate.
  • The asexual spores called conidia produced by exogenously on the special mycelium called conidiophores.
  • Conidia produces mycelium during germination.
  • The Ascospores are sexual spore which produced endogenously in sac like asci (singular ascus). These asci get arranged in different types called ascocarps.
  • examples- Aspergillus, Claviceps and Neurospora.
  • Neurospora is used extensively in biochemical and genetic work. The members like morels and truffles are edible and are considered delicacies.


mushrooms, bracket fungi or puffballs are common known Basidiomycetes.

Their habitat is soil, on logs and tree stumps and in living plant bodies as parasites, e.g., rusts and smuts.

  • Branched and septate mycelium is found.
  • Asexual spore generally not seen, otherwise vegetative reproduction is commonly found by fragmentation.
  • In basidiomycetes sex organs are absent. The fusion of two vegetative or somatic cells of different strains or genotypes(Plasmogamy), by this dikaryotic (dikaryotic* characterized by the presence of two nuclei in each cell) structure is formed  as basidium.
  • In basidium, Karyogamy and meiosis takes place in result four basidiospores produced.
  • The basidia (sing. basidium) are arranged in fruiting bodies called basidiocarps.
  • Ex. Agaricus (mushroom) (Figure 2.5c), Ustilago (smut) and Puccinia (rust
  • fungus)

Deuteromycetes- (also called imperfect fungi)

  • These are commonly called imperfect fungi because only asexual or vegetative phases is known of these fungi.
  • In deuteromycetes only asexual reproduction is found through spores known as conidia.
  • The mycelium is septate and branched.
  • Some members of this group are saprophytes or parasites while a large number of them are decomposers and help in mineral cycling.
  • Examples are Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Trichoderma.


  • Kingdom Plantae includes all eukaryotic organisms containing chlorophyll commonly called plants. Some of them are partially heterotrophic like the insectivorous plants or parasites.
  • For example, Bladderwort and Venus fly trap are insectivorous plants. Cuscuta is a parasitic plant.
  • The plant cells are eukaryotic in structure having chloroplast. Cell wall is made up of cellulose.
  • (please go through the blog Structure and function of cell for brief knowledge of eukaryotic cell)
  • The kingdom Plantae is a major kingdom including algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms.
  • Plants having two distinct phases in their life cycle- the diploid sporophytic and the haploid gametophytic –which is alternative to each other.
  • Alternation of generation is the phenomenon of cycle of sexual statge and asexual stage.


  • The members of Kingdom Animalia are heterotrophic eukaryotic organisms these are multicellular.
  • In these organism’s cell wall is absent.
  • For food They directly or indirectly depend on plants.
  • They are having organ system and for digesting food consisting cavities, and store food reserves as glycogen or fat.
  • In these organism’s mode of nutrition is holozoic – by ingestion of food.(For different mode of nutrition please visit given site   Life Processes ) A definite growth pattern is followed by them and grow into adults that have a definite shape and size.
  • Higher forms of these organisms shows elaborate sensory and neuromotor mechanism.
  • Mostly these are capable of locomotion.
  • The reproduction is sexual by copulation of male and female followed by embryological development. (  Reproduction in human )


In the five kingdom system of classification of Whittaker there is not any information about lichens and some acellular organisms like viruses, viroids and prions, but these also affect lives and shows their existence.


  • The name virus that means venom or poisonous fluid was given by Dmitri Ivanowsky (1892).
  • He recognised certain microbes as organism causing of the mosaic disease of tobacco.
  • These were smaller than bacteria because they passed through bacteria-proof filters.
  • M.W. Beijerinek (1898) demonstrated that the infected plant of tobacco’s extract can infect a healthy plant. So he called the fluid as Contagium vivum fluidumi.e. infectious living fluid.
  • W.M. Stanley (1935) showed these viruses could be crystallised and crystals consistis of proteins.
  • Structure-Viruses having simple structure consists a core and a cover. The core particle is the genetic material, either DNA or RNA. The cover is a protein coat called capsid
  • They do not show living character outside their specific host cell. They don’t consist their own enzyme. Viruses are obligate parasites. Once they infect a cell they take over the machinery of the host cell to replicate themselves, killing the host.
  • Viruses contains proteins and genetic material, that could be either RNA or DNA. The genetic material is infectious.
  • Generally, the viruses which infect plants have single stranded RNA.
  • Viruses which infect animals have either single or double stranded RNA or double stranded DNA
  • Viruses cause diseases like mumps, small pox, herpes and influenza. AIDS in humans is also caused by a virus HIV.
  • In plants, mosaic formation, leaf rolling and curling, yellowing and vein clearing, dwarfing and stunted growth can be caused by viruses.


  • In 1971, T.O. Diener discovered an infectious agent that was smaller than viruses and caused potato spindle tuber disease. It was without protein Coat (found in viruses) hence termed viroid.
  • Viroids are circular RNA molecules, consisting of several hundred nucleotides.
  • Plants get infected by them. In plants, they use enzymes of the plant cells to replicate like the viruses do. RNA molecules are of low molecular weight.


  • It consisting of abnormally folded protein and similar in size to viruses.
  • It causes infectious neurological diseases.
  • The most common diseases caused by prions are bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) commonly called mad cow disease in cattle and its analogous variant Cr–Jacob disease (CJD) in humans.


  • These are symbiotic associations i.e. mutually useful associations, between algae and fungi.
  • The algal component in lichens is known as phycobiont which is autotrophic.
  • The fungal component is heterotrophic called mycobiont.
  • Algae prepare food for fungi and fungi provides shelter and absorb mineral nutrients and water for algae.
  • Lichens are very good pollution indicators and they do not grow in polluted areas.

Modern History Notes Series-1

We have started to make Compiled notes series of Spectrum Modern History, as this book is very important for all competitive exams like UPSC, UPPSC and all state PCS. Hope you all will like it and get benefited.

Sources of modern history of India

Archives refer to a collection of historical records and documents, usually primary source documents, these provide information of past. Four types of archival materials –

  • central government archives
  • state government archives
  • records of intermediate and subordinate authorities
  • judicial records

Some famous British travelers wrote travel accounts

  • George Forster, Benjamin Heyne, James Burnes- Narrative of a Visit to the Court of Sinde
  • Alexander Burnes-Travels into Bokhara
  • C.J.C. Davidson-Diary of the Travels and Adventures in Upper India
  • John Butler-Travels and Adventures in the Province of Assam

Some Non-British travellers who wrote about India

  • Victor Jacque Mont- Letters from India describing journey in the British Dominions of India, Tibet, Lahore and Cashmere during the years 1828-1829—1831
  • Baron Charles – Travels in Kashmir and the Punjab

 Newspapers and Journals

The Bengal Gazette or Calcutta General Advertiser (first newspaper in India) in 1780 published by James Augustus Hickey. This was sized after two years. After that The Calcutta Gazette1784, The Madras Courier1788, The Bombay Herald1789 published.

These Newspapers depict aspects of life in colonial India from around the 1870s onwards. From 1920s newspapers tracked major events around the time of freedom struggle.

Literature was also playing important role during the time, some of these are-

  • Anandamath (1882)– lyric ‘Vandemataram’ written in this and the novel was based on the Sanyasi Revolt (1760s).
  • Rajasimha- Bankim Chandra Chatterji
  • Hind ane Britannia– Icharam Suryaram Desai (1853-1912)
  • Mohana Rajani (1931)- Girija Devi    – Tamil writer
  • Dasikalin Mosavalai (1936)- Ramatirthammal- Tamil writer
  • Keelubommalu (The Puppets, 1956)- G.V. Krishna Rao- Telugu
  • Balyakalasakhi (The Childhood Friends, 1944)- Vaikom Muhammad Basheer
  • Tottiyude Makan (Son of a Scavenger, 1948) and Chemmeen (Shrimps, 1956)- Thakazhi Siva Sankara Pillai- Malayalam.

Some information of colonial period can be found in paintings also.

  • The Paintings, also referred as ‘Patna Kalam’ under the patronage of the East India Company. The Trades, festivals, dances and the attire of people of that time are visible in these paintings.
  •  The ‘Relief of Lucknow’, painted by Thomas Jones Barker in 1859 shows British as heroes.
  • ‘In Memoriam’ painting by Joseph Noel Paton, recorded in painting two years of therevolt of 1857.

In Calcutta during the nineteenth century Kalighat painting raised which depicted mythological figures and ordinary people engaged in their everyday lives. Raja Ravi Varma- associated with painting.

Major Approaches to the History of Modern India– chapter 2

(Term historiography—the study of historical interpretation.)

For understanding the modern history can be read under four approaches-

  • the Colonial (or the Imperialist),
  • Nationalist,
  • Marxist,
  • Subaltern

Other approaches are also used as- Communalist, Cambridge, Liberal and Neo-liberal, and Feminist interpretations.

Colonial Approach / Historiography

The term ‘colonial approach’ used in two senses first relates to the history of the colonial countries, even second refers to the works which were influenced by the colonial ideology of dominancy. It leads domination and justification of the colonial rule and praised for the Western culture and values and deals with glorification of the individuals who established the colonial empires. For example- James Mill, MountStuart Elphinstone, Vincent Smith were writers of colonial approach.

Nationalist Historiography/ Approach

This approach shows national movement as a movement of the Indian people, which grew the awareness among all people of the exploitative nature of colonial rule. Nationalist historians of modern India didn’t exist before 1947, they mainly dealt with the ancient and medieval periods of Indian history before 1947.

  • For the adverse economic aspects of alien rule detailed and scientific critique of colonialism was developed by nationalists like Dadabhai Naoroji, M.G. Ranade, G.V. Joshi, R.C. Dutt, K.T. Telang, G.K. Gokhale, and D.E. Wacha..

Marxist Historiography/ Approach

  • Rajni Palme Dutt – India Today
  • A.R. Desai- Social Background of Indian Nationalism

Marxist historians clearly see the primary contradiction between the interests of the colonial masters and the subject people, as well as the process of the nation-in-the-making.

Subaltern Approach/ Historiography

They believe that the Indian people were never united in a common anti-imperialist struggle, there was no such entity as the Indian national movement. Example- Ranjit Guha editorship.

View A few historians have of late initiated a new trend, described by its proponents as subaltern, which dismisses all previous historical writing, including that based on a Marxist perspective, as elite historiography, and claims to replace this old, ‘blinkered’ historiography with what it claims is a new people’s or subaltern approach.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               —Bipan Chandra

Communalist Approach

In their view, India’s medieval history was one long story of Hindu- Muslim conflict. As a corollary of this view, it was then argued that the 19th- and 20th-century Muslims had the ‘happy’ and ‘proud’ ever-present memory of having been the ruling class, while Hindus had the ‘sad’ and ‘humiliating’ memory of having been the subject race.

Cambridge School

According to their thought, the fundamental contradiction under colonial rule was not between imperialism and the Indian people, but among the Indians themselves.

Liberal and Neo-Liberal Interpretations

According to these interpretations- the economic exploitation of the colonies was not beneficial to the British people as a whole. Proponents of these thoughts are Patrick O’Brian, Hopkins and Cain.

Feminist Historiography

Women’s history began with the women’s movement of the 1970s by this emergence of women’s studies in India. In the colonial period, two works based on women’s question in India—The High Caste Hindu Woman (1887) by Pandita Ramabai, and Mother India (1927) by Katherine Mayo—attracted international attention.